Thursday, May 21, 2020
A Comparison of Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoons War Poetry Lieutenant Wilfred Edward Salter Owen M.C. of the second Battalion Manchester Regiment, was born March 18th 1893 in Oswestry, Shropshire. He was educated at the Birkenhead Institute and at Shrewsbury Technical school. Wilfred Owen was the eldest of four children and the son of a railway official. He was of welsh ancestry and was particularly close to his mother whose evangelical Christianity greatly influenced his poetry. Owen was in the Pyrenees at the time when war broke out he was tutoring to the Leger family. He became frustrated hearing about all the men dying in the battlefields of Belgium and France and wanted to make aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For these acts of bravery he was awarded the Military Cross. He was shot and killed on the 4th November 1918. Aged 25 years just seven days before the armistice. Siegfried Sassoon, C. B. E. M.C. of the Royal Welch Fusiliers was born 8th September 1886, in the family home of Weirleigh at Matfield, Kent. He was educated at Marlborough and then at Clare College, Cambridge. He studied both Law and History at Cambridge before leaving without taking a degree. After leaving Cambridge, Sassoon lived the life of a sportsman, hunting, riding point-to-point races and playing cricket until the outbreak of the War. Sassoon enlisted on 2 August 1914, two days before the British declaration of war, and initially joined as a trooper in the Sussex Yeomanry. Between November 1915 and April 1917 he served as a second lieutenant in both the First and Second Battalions R.W.F. On November 1st 1915, Sassoon suffered his first personal loss of the War. His younger brother Hamo was buried at sea after being mortally wounded at Gallipoli. Sassoon subsequently commemorated this with a poem entitled To My Brother (published in the Saturday Review, February 26th 1916). Then on March 18, 1916 second lieutenant David C. Tommy Thomas (the Dick Tiltwood of Memoirs of a Fox-hunting Man) was killed whilst out with a wiring party. He had been hit in the throat by a rifle bullet, and despite theShow MoreRelatedA Comparison Between Wilfred OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËDulce Et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËAnthem for Doomed YouthÃ¢â¬â¢ and Siegfried SassoonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËDoes It Matter?Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËSuicide in the TrenchesÃ¢â¬â¢1991 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWilfred OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËDulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËAnthem for Doomed YouthÃ¢â¬â¢ are both poems that protest against and depict the subject of war. They both follow Wilfred OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s angst against those who encourage war and the savagery of warfare that he experienced himself. His poetry was devised to strike at the conscience of England during the World War. OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s mother had encouraged him to write poetry from an early age and when he was old enough he travelled to France to teach English when the war brokeRead MoreEssay on A Comparison of World War I Poetry2088 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesLiterature and poetry are a reflection of society. The words are reflected in numerous feelings that we can almost touch and can be deeply felt in its reach. Most poets expressed their perception and emotion through their writings. Unfortunately the art and poetry describes one of the worst things that human can do to one another. The legalized murder called war. Hence, this type of self-reflection called poetry has help create new fundamental ideas and values towards our society. In this essayRead MoreWilfred Owen s A Soldier For The Allies1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdeaths in World War I was approximately sixteen million and the number of people injured is twenty million, resulting in a combined total of thirty-seven million affected by World War I. Wilfred Owen was a soldier for the allies, an alliance composed of the United States, England, France. He bravely gave his life to attempt to end the war. However, before he died, he wrote a number of poems based on the things he endured while fighting in the war. Wilfred Owen uses his experiences from war, such as aRead MoreThe Different Aspects of Conflict in a Selection of Four War Poems1217 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Different Aspects of Conflict in a Selection of Four War Poems Many poems have been witnessed throughout history that show different views on war and the glory and sacrifices made. Everyone was affected, from the men in the front lines to women and children working back at home. Men involved in the war effort often wrote poems to record their thoughts and feelings, or simply to pass the time. Poetry was an outlet through which they could express great depthRead More How Poetry of the First World War Changed Essay3266 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesHow Poetry of the First World War Changed The First World War broke out on the 4th of august 1914. It was the first major war near bye Europe for hundreds of years. It sparked fantasies of becoming a war hero in young boys and mens minds and because the government had assured everyone that the war would be over by Christmas, those young boys and men decided to join up in an attempt not to miss the excitement of war. Little did they know that they were being led to an untimely death atRead MoreWorld War One Poetry Essay1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWorld War One Poetry For this assignment I am going to give a detailed consideration of poems from World War 1. I will be looking at poems by Wilfred Owen, Jessie Pope, Rupert Brooke and Siegfried Sassoon. I intend to study the language, imagery and poetic techniques of the poems. I am going to begin with some of the earlier war poetry. These poems were written to encourage young men to join the army. They are patriotic, jingoistic and unrealistic. These were writtenRead MoreAnalysis of the Deserter by Winifred M. Letts4013 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesLines Poetry Anthology Section H 1914-18 War (ii) This revision guide is intended to support the work you have been doing in class on the following poems: Recruiting Joining the Colours The Target The Send-Off Spring Offensive The Bohemians Lamentations The Deserter The Hero Falling Leaves In FlanderÃ¢â¬â¢s Fields The Seed-MerchantÃ¢â¬â¢s Son The Parable of the Old Man and the Young Spring in War-Time Perhaps- Reported Missing E.A. Mackintosh Katherine Tynan Hinkson Ivor Gurney Wilfred Owen Wilfred Owen
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Factory farming is a common farming method of confining animals such as chickens and pigs in tiny cramped places for mass food production, to get the best profit out of their product. Environmentalist and Animal Rights Activists strongly disagree with this way of food production as it causes stress and harm to the animals. Animals have the right to freedom and a happy, healthy life. But on the other side of the argument farmers and food companies say that without factory farming they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to produce the same amount of food at the same price and in the same time. And then theyÃ¢â¬â¢d have to put up meat prices in order to accommodate the new system. The Animal Rights activists are thinking about the animals whereas the farmers areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The problem with this method is the piglets are removed from the mother after 1 month; usually the piglets stay with their mother after several months, giving them the chance to grow and learn to fend for th emselves. The tails are removed and the teeth clipped- this is without pain relief, then they are then crammed into pens along with many others and stay there until they are deemed large enough for slaughter. https://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-food/factory-farming/pigs/pork-industry/ https://www2.stetson.edu/library/green/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/prize_2012Wanninger.pdf Farmers are allowed to use farrow crates for four weeks while the sow feeds her piglets until they are weaned off. The farmers want to make as much Ã¢â¬ËproductÃ¢â¬â¢ for as little as possible, so they strongly believe that this method helps because the sow is usually around 300kg which is more than enough weight to squash and accidently kill her piglets. So by putting her and her piglets into a smaller area, there is no way she could potential harm her babies because she literally cannot move. The farrow crates also make spotting sick and injured animal easier and they can quickly remove them withou t having to chase them round or worry about the mother trying to protect her young. According to farmers in the pig industry about 30 per cent of the pigs live outdoors while the other 70 per cent are kept inside. If the laws where to change, forcing farmers toShow MoreRelatedThe Ethical Implications Of Vegetarianism1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin factory farms. These are places where the livestock is kept confined in tight places for most or all of their lives. This is because these factory farms focus on efficiency and profit (Ã¢â¬Å"Factory FarmsÃ¢â¬ , ASPCA.com). An example of this is of the egg laying chicken. These are kept in small cages, and it is because of this that they can become violent. As a result of this violence, some farmers will cut off some of the chicken s beak so that they cannot kill eachother. (Ã¢â¬Å"Modern Animal FarmingÃ¢â¬ , veganoutreachRead MoreEssay What Moral and Ethical Obligations do Humans Have to Animals1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshas been a shif t in the way agricultural practices operate to produce the large quantities of meat and eggs necessary to feed the population. The intensive farming method of animal husbandry has become quite a controversial issue and caused apprehension amongst many different factions of society. These concerns relate to how high density farming practices result in dangers associated with environmental impacts, human health and non-human welfare. Animal welfare/animal rights groups argue that the conditionsRead MoreAnimal Rights At Factory Farms1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMadison Bowdish Dr. Brian Onishi PHIL 229 15 Dec 2016 Animal Rights in Factory Farms The idea that industrial farming is bad for the environment is well known, but what people do not think about is horrible practice of factory farms within industrial farming. Factory farms are inhumane and not only because the animal is being slaughtered, but because of the way the animals are treated before the are killed. A person would think that if they were to be innocently killed that they would want to beRead MoreFactory Farming and Rural Farming1958 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesfarms provided the meat consumed in the United States. Today that number has fallen to 2000, 95% of which are what we typically call Ã¢â¬Å"factory farmsÃ¢â¬ (Dimitri, 2). This move towards a highly concentrated factory production system has had a staggering impact on the current change in climate. This impact stems from broad and wide reaching causes fueled by factory farming, stretching from land degradation, to chemical use in fertilizers, to C02 and methane emissions. Lobbying by agribusinesses has re sultedRead MoreThe Environmental Impact Of Meat Production1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesimpact of meat production varies because of the wide-ranging assortment of agricultural practices used around the world. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to see the negative effects on the environment and why itÃ¢â¬â¢s ethically wrong in that sense. However, letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at the pros and cons of all the different ways beef production affects the environment. Grass fed cows can be great for the environment. Under the USDA regulations, Ã¢â¬Å"grass-fedÃ¢â¬ means the cattle can only eat forage. Forage includes grass, hay, brassicas, and leavesRead MoreFat Free, Weight Watchers, Pills, Detoxes, And All For What?966 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshave shown that this has a direct impact on the environment. Factory farming can have a substantial effect on the environment, by gas emissions, carbon use, and water pollution -just to name a few. The pros and cons can be pretty equal or out of proportion depending on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s predisposition on the topic. Equally, there is pros and cons to a plant based lifestyle. Previously hinted is a few of them, but there are essentially three big pros. Health is a big driving force that gets a person to changeRead MoreIndustrial Revolution After The Civil War956 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesemployment. Hand work was changed to machine labor and this made women started working in long hours and the rise of child labor, and immigration from the west for greener pasture increased. The rapid growth of factories enables many Americans abandoned farming and went in search for factory jobs which was in demand due to the use of machines. However, this changed the style of living in the society and added a separate class of people known as the middle class. The railroad became expanded and westRead MoreGlobalization Is It Good Or Bad?1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe advantages and disadvantages it is necessary to answer those questions. I will try to infiltrate as deeply as possible the concept of globalization p henomenon on changes in the food industry in the face of globalization. I will present its pros and cons, but it is your choice if whether globalization as beneficial or not. I will want to help you make that decision. Introduction Food security is one of the most important social needs. Global agriculture is increasingly developing not freely,Read MoreAnimal Cruelty1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrights gained tons of popularity. PETA (People for Ethical Treatment of Animals) was created in 1980 and Ã¢â¬Å"Focuses its attention on the four areas in which the largest numbers of animals suffer the most intensely for the longest periods of time: on factory farms, in the clothing trade, in laboratories, and in the entertainment industry.Ã¢â¬ ([-0]) As the knowledge of animal cruelty becomes more popular , will people take action to ensure the lives of animals are protected against the way they are enslavedRead MoreInternational Economic Dimensions Of Nutrition Essay1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCourse Name: Socio-economic Dimensions of Nutrition Course Code: 6410 Assignment Number: Second Lecturer: Dr. Keiron Audain Due date: 23rd December, 2016 Assignment Question: With a focus on food security, what are the pros and cons of free trade? Food security is defined as when all people at all times have access to safe nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life (FAO 2003). Therefore, the importance of food security is to the general welfare of the population
What are the Objectives of Public Enterprises? SOUMYA SINGH In India, public enterprises have been assigned the task of realising the objectives laid down in the Directive Principles of State Policy. Public sector as a whole seeks: (a) to gain control of the commanding heights of the economy, (b) to promote critical development in terms of social gain or strategic value rather than on consideration of profit, and (c) to provide commercial surplus with which to finance further economic development. The main objectives of public enterprises in India are as follows: 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Enterprises or any similar topic only for you Order Now Economic development: Public enterprises were set up to accelerate the rate of economic growth in a planned manner. These enterprises have created a sound industrial base for rapid industrialisation of the country. They are expected to provide infrastructure facilities for promoting balanced and diversified economic structure of development. 2. Self-reliance: Another aim of public enterprises is to promote self-reliance in strategic sectors of the national economy. For this purpose, public enterprises have been set up in transportation, communication, energy, petro-chemicals, and other key and basic industries. . Development of backward Areas: Several public enterprises were established in backward areas to reduce regional imbalances in development. Balanced development of different parts of the country is necessary for social as well as strategic reasons. 4. Employment generation: Unemployment has become a serious problem in India. Public enterprises seek to offer gainful employment to millions. In order to protect jobs, several sick units in the private sector have been nationalised. 5. Economic surplus: Public enterprises seek to generate and mobilise surplus for reinvestment. These enterprises earn money and mobilise public savings for industrial development. 6. Egalitarian society: An important objective of public enterprises is to prevent concentration of economic power and growth of private monopolies. Public sector helps the Government to enforce social control on trade and industry for ensuring equitable distribution of goods and services. Public enterprises protect and promote small scale industries. 7. Consumer welfare: Public enterprises seek to protect consumers from exploitation and profiteering by ensuring supply of essential commodities at cheaper prices. They aim at stabilising prices. 8. Public utilities: Private sector is guided by profit motive. Therefore, it is reluctant to invest money in public utility services like water supply, gas, electricity, public transport. Therefore, the Government has to assume responsibility for providing such services. 9. Defence: Government has to set up public enterprises for production of defence equipment. Supply of such equipment cannot be entrusted for private sector due to the need for utmost secrecy. 10. Labour welfare: Public enterprises serve as model employers. They ensure welfare and social security of employees. Many public enterprises have developed townships, schools, college and hospitals for their workers. Role and Rationale of Public Enterprises The public sector has been playing a vital role in the economic development of the country. In fact the public sector has come to occupy such an important place in our economy that on its effective performance depends largely the achievement of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic and social goals. Public sector is considered a powerful engine of economic development and an important instrument of self-reliance. The main contributions of public enterprises to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy may be described as follows: 1. Filling of gaps: At the time of independence, there existed serious gaps in the industrial structure of the country, particularly in the field of heavy industries. Basic and key industries require huge capital investment, involve considerable risk and suffer from long gestation periods. Private sector concerns do not come forward to establish such industries. Public sector has helped to fill up these gaps. The basic infrastructure required for rapid industrialisation has been built up, through the production of strategic capital goods. The public sector has considerably widened the industrial base of the country and speeded up the pace of industrialisation. 2. Employment: Public sector has created millions of jobs to tackle the unemployment problem in the country. Public sector accounts for about two-third of the total employment in the organised industrial sector in India. By taking over many sick units, the public sector has protected the employment of millions. Public sector has also contributed a lot towards the improvement of working and living conditions of workers by serving as a model employer. 3. Balanced regional development: Private industries tend to concentrate in certain regions while other regions remain backward. Public sector undertakings have located their plants in backward and untraded parts of the country. These areas lacked basic industrial and civic facilities like electricity, water supply, township and manpower. Public enterprises have developed these facilities thereby bringing about complete transformation in the social-economic life of the people in these regions. Steel plants of Bhilai, Rourkela and Durgapur; fertilizer factory at Sindri, machine tool plants in Rajasthan, precision instruments plants in Kerala and Rajasthan, etc. are a few examples of the development of backward regions by the public sector. 4. Optimum utilisation of resources: Public enterprises make better utilisation of scarce resources of the country. They are big in size and able to enjoy the benefits of large scale operations. They help to eliminate wasteful completion and ensure full use of installed capacity. Op timum utilisation of resources results in better and cheaper production. 5. Mobilisation of surplus: The profits earned by public enterprises are reinvested for expansion and diversification. Moreover, public sector concerns like banks and financial nstitutions mobilise scattered public savings thereby helping the process of capital formation in the country. Public enterprises earn considerable foreign exchange through exports. 6. Self reliance: Public enterprises have reduced considerably the need for imports by producing new and better products within the country. These enterprises are also earning considerable amount of foreign exchange through exports. 7. Socialistic pattern of society: Public sector is an instrument for realising social objectives. Public enterprises help to check concentration of wealth and private monopolies. These enterprises can serve as powerful means of economic and social change. 8. Public welfare: Public enterprises help in the establishment of a welfare state in the country. These enterprises supply essential commodities at cheaper rates. A proper balance between demand and supply is created to protect consumers against exploitation by profit hungry businessmen. Public enterprises also protect and promote the interests of workers. Criticism of Public Enterprises [Arguments against Public Enterprises] Public enterprises are opposed on account of weaknesses in their organisation and working. These enterprises generally suffer from the following problems: 1. Delay in completion: Often a very long time is taken in the establishment and completion of public enterprises. Delay in completion leads to increase in the cost of establishment and benefits extracted from them are delayed. 2. Faulty evaluation: Public enterprises are in some cases set upon political considerations. There is no proper evaluation of demand and supply and expected costs and benefits. There are no clear cut objectives and guidelines. In the absence of proper project planning there is under- utilisation of capacity and wastage of national resources. . Heavy overhead costs: Public enterprises often spend huge amounts on providing housing and other amenities to employees. Though such investment is useful for employees but it takes away a large part of capital and the project suffers from financial difficulties. 4. Poor returns: Majority of the public enterprises in India are incurring loss. In some of them the profits earned do not yield a reasonable return on huge investment. Lack of effective financial controls, wasteful expenditure and dogmatic pricing policy result in losses 5. Inefficient management: Due to excessive centralisation of authority and lack of motivation public enterprises are managed inefficiently. High level posts are often occupied by persons lacking necessary expertise but enjoying political support. 6. Political interference: There is frequent interference from politicians and civil servants in the working of public enterprises. Such interference leaves little scope for initiative and freedom of action. Public enterprises enjoy little autonomy and flexibility of operations. 7. Labour problems: In the absence of proper manpower planning public enterprises suffer from over-staffing. Jobs are created to fulfil employment goals of the Government. Guarantee of job in these enterprises encourages trade unions to be militant in pursuing their aims. Growth of Public Enterprises in India At the time of independence, public sector in India was confined mainly to railways, communications, defence production and public utility services. Since then the growth of public enterprises has been very rapid. Now public sector consists of public utilities (e. g. , railways, post and telegraph, etc), manufacturing concerns (e. g. , BHEL, SAIL, etc. ), trading organisations (e. g. STC, MMTC, etc. ), service organisations (e. g. , NIDC, RITES, etc. ). SAIL, a Maharatna Company of Govt. of India, is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading and IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest steel producer with an annual turnover of around Rs. 50,348 crore (FY11-12). It operates and owns 5 integrated steel plants at Rourkela, Bhilai, Durgapur, Bokaro and Burnpur and 3 special steel plants at Salem, Durgapur and Bhadravati. As part of its global ambition the Company is implementing a massive expansion plan involving project work of building/adding new facilites with emphasis on state of the art green technology. List of Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna CPSEs As per available information (as on February, 2013) Maharatna CPSEs Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Coal India Limited GAIL (India) Limited Indian Oil Corporation Limited NTPC Limited Oil Natural Gas Corporation Limited Steel Authority of India Limited Navratna CPSEs Bharat Electronics Limited Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited National Aluminium Company Limited NMDC Limited Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited Oil India Limited Power Finance Corporation Limited Power Grid Corporation of India Limited Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited Rural Electrification Corporation Limited Shipping Corporation of India Limited Miniratna Category Ã¢â¬â I CPSEs Airports Authority of India Antrix Corporation Limited Balmer Lawrie Co. Limited Bharat Dynamics Limited BEML Limited Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Bridge Roof Company (India) Limited Central Warehousing Corporation Central Coalfields Limited Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited Cochin Shipyard Limited Container Corporation of India Limited Dredging Corporation of India Limited Engineers India Limited Ennore Port Limited Garden Reach Shipbuilders Engineers Limited Goa Shipyard Limited Hindustan Copper Limited HLL Lifecare Limited Hindustan Newsprint Limited Hindustan Paper Corporation Limited Housing Urban Development Corporation Limited India Tourism Development Corporation Limited Indian Railway Catering Tourism Corporation Limited IRCON International Limited KIOCL Limited Mazagaon Dock Limited Mahanadi Coalfields Limited Manganese Ore (India) Limited Mangalore Refinery Petrochemical Limited Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited MMTC Limited MSTC Limited National Fertilizers Limited National Seeds Corporation Limited NHPC Limited Northern Coalfields Limited Numaligarh Refinery Limited ONGC Videsh Limited Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited Projects Development India Limited Railtel Corporation of India Limited Rashtriya Chemicals Fertilizers Limited RITES Limited SJVN Limited Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited South Eastern Coalfields Limited State Trading Corporation of India Limited Telecommunications Consultants India Limited THDC India Limited Western Coalfields Limited WAPCOS Limited Miniratna Category-II CPSEs Bharat Pumps Compressors Limited Broadcast Engineering Consultants (I) Limited Central Mine Planning Design Institute Limited Ed. CIL (India) Limited Engineering Projects (India) Limited FCI Aravali Gypsum Minerals India Limited Ferro Scrap Nigam Limited HMT (International) Limited HSCC (India) Limited India Trade Promotion Organisation Indian Medicines Pharmaceuticals Corporation Limited M E C O N Limited National Film Development Corporation Limited National Small Industries Corporation Limited P E C Limited Rajasthan Electronics Instruments Limited How to cite Public Enterprises, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Hospital medical doctors rely on relevant and reliable medical databases for the professional performance of their medical oath. The research centers on physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ exchange of medical research information with other physicians in the community. The research centers on both the drawbacks and expected benefits of data distribution systems. The hospital physicians can choose between distributed data processing and centralized data processing.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Network and Telecommunicating in HC specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Distributed data processing centers. Under this process, different programs have their own databases. Each of the hospitals will have their own separate databases (Http://Ebookee.Org). The doctors in one hospital cannot access the databases from another hospital in the community. Hospital A will have its own database software. In turn, Hospital B will have its own datab ase software. All the other hospitals have their own database software systems. Each hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s software does not share the same files with the other hospitals in the community. In a single processor computer, the central processing unit (CPU) and its input /output operations are separated and overlapped (Ozsu, 2011, p. 2). Other examples of distributed data processing include web-based applications, electronic commerce business over the internet, multimedia applications, as well as medical imaging. There are expected benefits from using the distributed data processing system. One of the expected benefits of the system is the implementation of the divide and conquer rule. One can better solve a complicated problem by dividing the problem into segments. Each person or group is assigned to solve one separate segment of the problem at the same time. Each team will contribute its own segment solutions to the entire group. Under the distributed data processing system, the time nee ded to solve one problem is reduced to allowable time periods. Second, each hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s database cannot be accessed by unauthorized persons in another hospital. Since the other hospitals cannot access the database of the other hospitals, the threat of hackers is reduced. Hackers can use software that will detect, delete, or bypass the passwords of a given database. Third, the physicians or hospitals can beneficially use the distributed data processing system for the preparation of confidential financial, medical, and other relevant reports. The physician or hospital can use the same processing system to process payroll, inventory, administrative chores and functions. The systemÃ¢â¬â¢s program is allied only to one hospital system. Another hospital has its own data processing system (School Graduates to Distributed Data Prcoessing System, 1983, p. 42). There are some drawbacks from implementing the distributed data processing system. One hospital cannot access the required da tabase from the other hospitals. For example, Hospital A cannot access the diabetes research database of hospital B. the same Hospital B cannot access the cancer research database of Hospital C. In the same light, hospital D cannot retrieve the required AIDS/ HIV database of Hospital A. Second, some unauthorized persons may use the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s terminals to access classified medical records.Advertising Looking for report on business communication? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With the advent of Wi-Fi technology, a hacker can enter the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s website and log on to hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s restricted medical database. While inside the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s database software, the hacker can retrieve confidential data, add unauthorized data, edit confidential data, and delete some of the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s confidential and vital hospital patient information. To resolve the hacker threat, the security measures must be in pla ce. The security measures reduce data theft under the distributed data processing system. Proposed transition to centralized data processing model. Under this process, different programs can access the same database source. All the different programs can manipulate data gathered from only one huge central database. The database is shared by all the programs, physicians, and hospitals. Remote computer terminals can access the same database and generate similar reports (Hall, 2012, p. 424). There are expected benefits from implementing the centralized data processing system. First, the use of lesser number of computer systems is involved. The security systems reduce security threats. Under this process, limited security procedures are needed compared to the security measures implemented under the distributed data processing system (McEwen, 1990, p. 15). Second, one hospital can access any required database information from the other seven hospitals in the community. Hospital A can acc ess the tuberculosis research database of hospital E. Hospital B can access the dentistry research database of hospital F. Hospital G can scrutinize the AIDS research database of hospital H. There are some disadvantages from implementing the centralized data processing system. The centralized data processing system reduces the danger of unauthorized persons leaking information. Stricter data security measures must be in place in the centralized data processing system when compared to the security measures implemented under the distributed data processing system. The stricter security measures include encrypted passwords and security personnel prevent unauthorized persons from entering the computer terminals. Based on the above discussion, medical doctors need relevant and reliable medical databases for their hospital practices. The distributed data processing system has its expected benefits and drawbacks. Similarly, the centralized data processing system has its own unique expected benefits and drawbacks. Evidently, the hospital physicians can correctly choose between distributed data processing and centralized data processing for their medical database researches. References Hall, J. (2012). Accounting Information System. New York: Cengage Press.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Network and Telecommunicating in HC specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McEwen, J. (1990). Cops Nad Computers: Microcomputers in Criminal Justice. New York: Diane Press. Ozsu, M. (2011). Principles of Distributed Database Systems. New York: Springer Press. Business Data Communication, Retrieved from https://ebookee.org/ School Graduates to Distributed Data Prcoessing System. (1983). Computerworld , 17Ã (45), 42. This report on Network and Telecommunicating in HC was written and submitted by user Hailee Livingston to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Anxiety, Mood, and Dissociative Disorders Matrix template Ã DSM IV disorder Ã Definition Symptoms Ã Criteria Additional information Anxiety Disorders: Panic attack Agoraphobia Social phobia Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) A sudden onset of severe apprehension, terror, or fearfulness, often associated with a feeling of imminent doom. Anxiety about, or avoidance of, places or circumstances from which escape may be challenging or embarrassing or in which rescue is inevitable in the incident of Panic attack or Panic-like symptoms. Critical anxiety induced by experience of certain types of social or performance circumstance, often culminating to avoidance behavior. Describe an obsession and/or compulsions. Implies a repeated traumatic experience characterized by elevated arousal and unresponsiveness towards stimuli. A minimum of six months of persistent and severe anxiety and worry. Fear worry Feelings of dread/apprehension Problem concentra ting Eeling nervous jumpy Anticipation Irritability Restlessness Feeling of mind blankness Six months duration of symptoms for GAD Obsession compulsion taking more than one hourÃ a day for OCD Fear of social or performance situation (Social Phobia) There are other forms of anxiety disorders besides these. Mood disorders Major Depressive Disorders, Dysthymic Disorder Bipolar I Disorders Bipolar II Disorders A minimum of 2 weeks of withdrawal or depressed mood coupled with a minimum of four extra symptoms of depression A minimum of 2 years of depressed mood, in addition to depressive symptoms that do not satisfy criteria for a Major Depressive Episode One or more Mixed or Manic Episodes, in conjunction with Major Depressive Episode One or more Major Depressive Episodes coupled by a minimum of one Hypomanic Episode Personality change Depression Agitation Aggression Depressed mood or drastic diminished interest or enjoyment in almost all activities Ã Scient ist has categorized Mood disorders into three major groups; Depressive Disorders, Bipolar Disorders, two disorders based on etiology. Dissociative Disorders Dissociative amnesia Dissociative Fugue Dissociative identity Disorder Depersonalization Disorder A patient presents problem with remembering some critical personal details, which does not pass for normal forgetfulness. A sudden journey away from home or own regular place of job combined with an inability to remember own past and confusion about individual identity or the assumption of novice identity. An expression of two or more unique identities or personality conditions that recurrently control the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior in conjunction with an inability to remember critical personal information and that is too complicated to be explained with usual forgetfulness. It signifies a recurrent or persistent sense of being detached from own mental functions or body coupling the intact reality assessment.Ã Memor y loss Switching to alternate identities Developing physical distance from true identity An abrupt sense of being outside oneself A patient experiences an inability to remember personal details for once or more than once. A patient indicates presence of two or more unique identities, with a minimum of two of them recurrently taking control of the personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. A sudden predominant disturbance, unexpected journey away from home or workplace accompanied with inability to recall own past. Persistent experience of depersonalization and are not linked to any other mental disorder and cause extreme distress. The important element in the Dissociative Disorders is interference in normal the normal integrate function of perception, identity, memory, or consciousness. Causes of anxiety, mood and dissociative disorders Biological components Anxiety, Mood and Dissociative disorder involves malfunction in various physiological elements including:Advertising We will w rite a custom essay sample on Anxiety, Mood, and Dissociative Disorders specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Autonomic Nervous System The sympathetic division stimulates survival responses to perceived threats by signaling the adrenal glands to produce adrenaline and noradrenaline, which induces the heart to beat faster, increase breathing rate and intensity, dilate the pupils, and tense the muscle. An animal flees or attacks upon sensing danger because of extreme arousal of the sympathetic nervous division. The parasympathetic system reverses the activity of the sympathetic system when the danger passes, and restores the body to its resting, pre-anxiety state. Panic attacks arise due to stimulation of the fight-or-flight response that happens inappropriately even without any actual threat. Individuals with history of panic attacks often tend to develop an intense panic attacks whereas individual without history of the attacks will not. This trend implies previous experience of threat have been encoded in the brain. Neurotransmission Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions as an inhibitor in the central nervous system to suppress neurological activity. GABA induces calm in the limbic system after it gets overexcited (Hansell Damour, 2008, p.35). Seemingly, GABA does not work effectively in the brains of individual afflicted with extreme chronic anxiety, as is the case in GAD. Norepinephrine is the major neurotransmitter in locus coeruleus, which is associated with sympathetic nervous system. Under-activation of locus coeruleus results in inattentiveness and drowsiness, while over-activation results in distractedness and disorganization. The locus coeruleus becomes hypersensitive when conditioned to fear response, so that it fires even with slight stimulation. Scientists attribute Panic attacks to hypersensitivity of the locus coeruleus to Norepinephrine. Chronic experience of extreme stress may raise the sensitivity of norepinephrine brain receptors (Hansell Damour, 2008, p. 36). The hypersensitivity translates to overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and subsequently the fight-or-flight response. Serotonin can elicit anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects based on the region of the brain of its release or the type of receptor it stimulates. Serotonin hypoactivity exposes the fight-or-flight system to slight stimulation leading to recurrent panic attack. Autoimmune Disorders Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections [PANDAS] is a disease in which children who suffer from strep throat infection develop symptoms of OCD. Researchers speculated that antibodies that emanate from immune response to streptococcal infection interact with basal ganglia and caudate nucleus, leading to OCD. Genetic factors Genetic material underlies the physiology of the system of an organism. Genetic factors account for 30 to 50% people vulnerability to suffer an a nxiety disorder. Nevertheless, the magnitude of genetic impact varies remarkably among the DSM-IV-TR disorders. Panic disorders seem to be especially heritable; lifetime frequencies of panic disorders in first-degree relatives of individual indicated with the disorder ranges from 7.7 to 17.3% against a range of 0.8 to 4.2% in first-degree relatives of people without panic disorders (Hansell Damour, 2008, p.36). A specific genetic anomaly that contributes to disturbances in neurotransmission of glutamic acid may be responsible for an early onset of OCD. Cognitive component Cognitive component of mood disorders includeÃ rumination and hopelessness. Rumination means a continual obsessive thinking about something, while hopelessness means a sense of lack of control about the future and that there is nothing optimistic in the future.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Anxiety pa tients tend to misjudge events in couple of ways viz. they preoccupy on perceived threats and dangers, they overestimate the seriousness of the perceived threat or danger, and they overly underestimate their capacity to adjust to the dangers and threats they anticipate. Maladaptive assumptions and ideas influence the suffererÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking and lead them to misconceive events. This can lead to self-stereotyping such as Ã¢â¬Å"Unless I do things perfectly, people will think IÃ¢â¬â¢m an idiotÃ¢â¬ (Hansell Damour, 2008, p.47). Maladaptive ideas are pessimistic expectations concerning the relationship between behaviors and repercussions. Emotional component (The Limbic System) The Limbic System forms the basis for emotional responses (including anxiety), learning, inspiration, and some aspects of memory. It comprises of three division including amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. The amygdala measures the emotional significance of impulses it receives from the brain cortex , and the encoding of memories seem to involve alterations in the neural course of the amygdala and the Hippocampus (Hansell Damour, 2008, p.34). The amygdala relays information to the hypothalamus, which is supposed to be responsible for encoding conditioned emotional responses. For instance, when a person with a snake phobia sees a snake, the amygdala process the visual input in conjunction with the hippocampus to decode the emotional impact of the snake, and then relay a warning signal to the hypothalamus to activate emergency response (fight-or-flight response). Behavioral component Scientists have based behavioral component of disorders into classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and modeling theories. Based on classical conditioning, a phobia can be developed when a neutral stimulus that does not normally elicit fear occur during an intense fear response to a terrifying stimulus.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Anxiety, Mood, and Dissociative Disorders specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Based on operant conditioning, once individuals develop a phobic response, they express avoidance of what they fear. The operant conditioning theory posits that people negatively reinforce such avoidance behavior because it removes them from feared unpleasant circumstances (Hansell Damour, 2008, p.33). Finaly, prepared conditioning hypothesis that people may express genetic predisposition to fear stimulus inherited from their ancestors. References List American Psychiatry Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual ofÃ Mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR (4th Ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatry Association. Hansell, J., Damour, L. (2008). Abnormal Psychology (2nd Ed.). New York: John Wiley Sons Inc.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Bernard Montgomery, World War II Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery (November 17, 1887Ã¢â¬âMarch 24, 1976) was a British soldier who rose through the ranks to become one of the most important military leaders of World War II. Known to be difficult to work with, Monty was nevertheless exceptionally popular with the British public. He was rewarded for his service with promotions to Field Marshal, Bridgadier General, and Viscount. Fast Facts: Bernard Montgomery Known For: Top military commander during World War IIAlso Known As: MontyBorn: November 17, 1887 in London, England Parents: The Reverend Henry Montgomery, Maud MontgomeryDied: March 24, 1976 in Hampshire, EnglandEducation: St. PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s School, London, and the Royal Military Academy (Sandhurst)Awards and Honors: Distinguished Service Order (after being wounded in WWI); after WWII, he received the Knight of the Garter and was created 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein in 1946Spouse: Elizabeth CarverChildren: John and Dick (stepsons) and DavidNotable Quote: Every soldier must know, before he goes into battle, how the little battle he is to fight fits into the larger picture, and how the success of his fighting will influence the battle as a whole. Early Life Born in Kennington, London in 1887, Bernard Montgomery was the son of Reverend Henry Montgomery and his wife Maud, and the grandson of noted colonial administrator Sir Robert Montgomery. One of nine children, Montgomery spent his early years at the familys ancestral home of New Park in Northern Ireland before his father was made Bishop of Tasmania in 1889. While living in the remote colony, he endured a harsh childhood that included beatings by his mother. Largely educated by tutors, Montgomery seldom saw his father, who frequently traveled due to his post. The family returned to Britain in 1901 when Henry Montgomery became secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Back in London, the younger Montgomery attended St. Pauls School before entering the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst. While at the academy, he struggled with discipline issues and was nearly expelled for rowdiness. Graduating in 1908, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant and assigned to the 1st Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment. World War I Sent to India, Montgomery was promoted to lieutenant in 1910. Back in Britain, he received an appointment as battalion adjutant at the Shorncliffe Army Camp in Kent. With the outbreak of World War I, Montgomery deployed to France with the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Assigned to Lieutenant General Thomas Snows 4th Division, his regiment took part in the fighting at Le Cateau on August 26, 1914. Continuing to see action during the retreat from Mons, Montgomery was badly wounded during a counterattack near MÃ ©teren on October 13, 1914. He was hit through the right lung by a sniper before another round struck him in the knee. Awarded the Distinguished Service Order, he was appointed as a brigade major in the 112th and 104th Brigades. Returning to France in early 1916, Montgomery served as aÃ staff officer with the 33rd Division during the Battle of Arras. The following year, he took part in the Battle of Passchendaele as a staff officer with IX Corps. During this time he became known as a meticulous planner who worked tirelessly to integrate the operations of the infantry, engineers, and artillery. As the war concluded in November 1918, Montgomery held the temporary rank of lieutenant colonel and was serving as chief of staff for the 47th Division. Interwar Years After commanding the 17thÃ (Service) Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers in the British Army of the Rhine during the occupation, Montgomery reverted to the rank of captain in November 1919. Seeking to attend the Staff College, he persuaded Field Marshal Sir William Robertson to approve his admission. Completing the course, he was again made a brigade major and assigned to the 17th Infantry Brigade in January 1921. Stationed in Ireland, he took part in counter-insurgency operations during the Irish War of Independence and advocated taking a hard line with the rebels. In 1927, Montgomery married Elizabeth Carver and the couple had a son, David, the following year. Moving through a variety of peacetime postings, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1931 and rejoined the Royal Warwickshire Regiment for service in the Middle East and India. Returning home in 1937, he was given command of the 9th Infantry Brigade with the temporary rank of brigadier. A short time later, tragedy struck when Elizabeth died from septicemia following an amputation caused by an infected insect bite. Grief-stricken, Montgomery coped by withdrawing into his work. A year later, he organized a massive amphibious training exercise that was praised by his superiors, which led to his promotion to major general. Given command of the 8th Infantry Division in Palestine, he put down an Arab revolt in 1939 before being transferred to Britain to lead the 3rd Infantry Division. With the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, his division was deployed to France as part of the BEF. Fearing a disaster similar to 1914, he relentlessly trained his men in defensive maneuvers and fighting. In France Serving in General Alan Brookes II Corps, Montgomery earned his superiors praise. With the German invasion of the Low Countries, the 3rd Division performed well and, following the collapse of the Allied position, was evacuated through Dunkirk. During the final days of the campaign, Montgomery led II Corps as Brooke had been recalled to London. Arriving back in Britain, Montgomery became an outspoken critic of the BEFs high command and began a feud with the commander of Southern Command, Lieutenant General Sir Claude Auchinleck. Over the next year, he held several posts responsible for the defense of southeastern Britain. North Africa In August 1942, Montgomery, now a lieutenant general, was appointed to command the Eighth Army in Egypt following the death of Lieutenant-General William Gott. Serving under General Sir Harold Alexander, Montgomery took command on August 13 and began a rapid reorganization of his forces and worked to reinforce the defenses at El Alamein. Making numerous visits to the front lines, he diligently endeavored to raise morale. In addition, he sought to unite land, naval, and air units into an effective combined arms team. Anticipating that Field Marshal Erwin Rommel would attempt to turn his left flank, he strengthened this area and defeated the noted German commander at the Battle of Alam Halfa in early September. Under pressure to mount an offensive, Montgomery began extensive planning for striking at Rommel. Opening the Second Battle of El Alamein in late October, Montgomery shattered Rommels lines and sent him reeling east. Knighted and promoted to general for the victory, he maintained pressure on Axis forces and turned them out of successive defensive positions, including the Mareth Line in March 1943. Sicily and Italy With the defeat of Axis forces in North Africa, planning began for the Allied invasion of Sicily. Landing in July 1943 in conjunction with Lieutenant General George S. Pattons U.S. Seventh Army, Montgomerys Eighth Army came ashore near Syracuse. While the campaign was a success, Montgomerys boastful style ignited a rivalry with his flamboyant American counterpart. On September 3, the Eighth Army opened the campaign in Italy by landing in Calabria. Joined by Lieutenant General Mark Clarks U.S. Fifth Army, which landed at Salerno, Montgomery began a slow, grinding advance up the Italian peninsula. D-Day On December 23, 1943, Montgomery was ordered to Britain to take command of the 21st Army Group, which comprised all of the ground forces assigned to the invasion of Normandy. Playing a key role in the planning process for D-Day, he oversaw the Battle of Normandy after Allied forces began landing on June 6. During this period, he was criticized by Patton and General Omar Bradley for his initial inability to capture the city of Caen. Once taken, the city was used as the pivot point for the Allied breakout and crushing of German forces in the Falaise pocket. Push to Germany As most of the Allied troops in Western Europe rapidly became American, political forces prevented Montgomery from remaining Ground Forces Commander. This title was assumed by the Supreme Allied Commander, General Dwight Eisenhower, while Montgomery was permitted to retain the 21st Army Group. In compensation, Prime Minister Winston Churchill had Montgomery promoted to field marshal. In the weeks following Normandy, Montgomery succeeded in convincing Eisenhower to approve Operation Market-Garden, which called for a direct thrust toward the Rhine and Ruhr Valley utilizing large numbers of airborne troops. Uncharacteristically daring for Montgomery, the operation was also poorly planned, with key intelligence about the enemys strength overlooked. As a result, the operation was only partially successful and resulted in the destruction of the 1st British Airborne Division. In the wake of this effort, Montgomery was directed to clear the Scheldt so that the port of Antwerp could be opened to Allied shipping. On December 16, the Germans opened the Battle of the Bulge with a massive offensive. With German troops breaking through the American lines, Montgomery was ordered to take command of U.S. forces north of the penetration to stabilize the situation. He was effective in this role and was ordered to counterattack in conjunction with Pattons Third Army on January 1, with the goal of encircling the Germans. Not believing his men were ready, he delayed two days, which allowed many of the Germans to escape. Pressing on to the Rhine, his men crossed the river in March and helped encircle German forces in the Ruhr. Driving across northern Germany, Montgomery occupied Hamburg and Rostock before accepting a German surrender on May 4. Death After the war, Montgomery was made commander of the British occupation forces and served on the Allied Control Council. In 1946, he was elevated to Viscount Montgomery of Alamein for his accomplishments. Serving as Chief of the Imperial General Staff from 1946 to 1948, he struggled with the political aspects of the post. Beginning in 1951, he served as deputy commander of NATOs European forces and remained in that position until his retirement in 1958. Increasingly known for his outspoken views on a variety of topics, his postwar memoirs were severely critical of his contemporaries. Montgomery died on March 24, 1976, and was buried at Binsted.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
The integumentary - Research Paper Example She is also forgetting to wash her hands after toileting. Her skin has become very dry, pale and thin, tearing easily even when she simply scratches an itch. Q 1. Identify a specific cell from the integumentary system (1 cell only for each), involved in a) protection Ã¢â¬â SQUAMOUS CELL of the skin appears thin and flat; this is very important in protecting the entire body against damage brought about by cuts, bumps, spills of acids and bases, and damage due to ultraviolet radiation (Marieb, 2008). b) sensation Ã¢â¬â CUTANEOUS SENSORY RECEPTOR is another cell which can appear as specialized neurons, dendritic nerve endings, or specialized epithelial cell connected with sensory nerve endings; this is particularly responsible for the sensation of skin (Seeley, 2008). c) secretion Ã¢â¬â CUBOIDAL CELLS of sebaceous gland exit as single layer with polygon-shaped cells; it appears square-like in structure with a central round nucleus found in most glands of the human body (Tortora & Derrickson, 2007). Describe how each of these cells is designed for the function it carries out. Squamous cells are designed to be flat and thin to easily cover the outer part of the skin and facilitate the process of diffusion of substances effectively and more rapidly, in or out of the cells. Cutaneous skin receptors on the other hand, appear elongated, mesh-like and inter-networking with one another; this type of design is intended for fast conduct and transmission of impulses or electrical conductivity. Lastly, the cuboidal cells have box-like feature which is designed to permit fluid-holding capacity; allowing cells to secrete substances.. Q2. How does skin structure and function change with age and lifestyle factors? Make reference to the case study and the cells and functions you have discussed in Question 1. Skin, the largest organ and the most visible in the body, also undergoes aging process that shows multiple clinical manifestations and concerns. Organ aging and failu re, become evident if and when the skin is affected. Skin deterioration is the outward evidence of faltering physiology. Although in the healthy aged population, expected changes occur, and sometimes lead to problems. Most of the skin changes that are linked with aging are caused by intrinsic aging rather than lifestyle factor or photo damage (Shekar, Luciano, Duffy and Martin, 2005; p. 125-1119).Cellular damage due to intrinsic factors are not fully understood, however, the stress of free radicals derived from reactive oxygen species that resulted from oxidative metabolism may lead to mutation of DNA, oxidation of proteins due to oxidation of membrane lipids, reduced function, and resulting in the abnormal trans-membrane impulse transmission and reduced transport efficiency. The moment repair is incomplete, damage over time can result to to abnormal structure and function.(Tortora & Derrickson, 2007). The ultraviolet exposure will also speed up chronological skin changes, and as ag e increase the impact of photo aging heightens (Seeley, 2008). Q3. Florence has expressed discomfort with hot weather. Explain how her skin changes may be contributing to this? Normally, occupation, lifestyle, and health associated decisions frequently determine the appearance of skin. Smoking, weight loss, lack of exercise, inadequate nutrition, stress and lack of sleep, exposure to cold weather, are common contributors to unhealthy skin. For elderly people, there are major changes in the structures